Increasing pressures on natural resources have resulted in many countries restricting the use of water run to waste for cooling of instrumentation. The E4860 can be used in locations where mains water is not available. Corrosion in closed systems can also be minimised by adding inhibitors and, with suitable additives, temperatures below zero can be maintained. A three-term digital temperature controller ensures ease of use and accuracy.
Many instruments measuring physical properties depend on accurate control of temperature and in some processes optimum temperature is essential. With the E4860, over-cooling (which affects efficiency) is prevented and the water temperature can be accurately controlled over the range -10º to +60°C.
A commonly misunderstood feature of refrigerated systems is in applications where the control temperature is other than at or near room temperature. When the instruments are to be operated at controlled temperatures below ambient, the extraction deteriorates significantly and, as a guide, the compounded change is 4% per degree Celsius. In practice, the refrigerant gas pressure has to be adjusted to optimise the performance at any particular temperature. However, the E48060 incorporate automatic adjustment valves in the systems.
The E4860 is a ‘closed loop’ type and therefore efficiencies are dramatically improved compared with open bath models. The E4860 is simple to set up and to operate – essentially maintenance-free.
Choosing the correct heater/chiller
In order to optimise performance from a heater/chiller system, the correct specification must be selected for a particular application. To cool or heat any instrument or system it is important to obtain the following information from the manufacturer:
* Heat load to be dissipated to water, e.g. for an electron microscope lenses
* Flow rate and size of tubing
* Minimum pressure
With this information, consult the table below and select the appropriate heater/chiller. The basic heat load calculation formula is as follows: flow rate x weight of fluid x specific heat x D T = Heat Extraction.
|Heat extraction rates (in Watts)
For use with the Quorum E3100 and K850WM critical point dryers
The E4860 is a recommend option with the E3100 and must be ordered with the K850WM wafer dryer.